By B. Guy Peters (ed.), Jon Pierre (ed.)
Drawing contributions from best lecturers and coverage analysts from worldwide, the guide illustrates the altering function of governments vis-à-vis the private and non-private quarter and the several coverage actors (national and foreign, governmental and non-governmental) fascinated about the coverage making process.
It might be a necessary better half for all complex undergraduates, graduates, teachers and practitioners throughout public coverage and public management, public administration, executive and political technology.
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By contrast, an analytical perspective that recognises that influencing the policy process can involve adjustments to a complex nested system of levels, loci and layers, may help actors to identify alternatives for action. Those with a strong top-down perspective may be assisted by recognising that they have choices between fundamental restructuring, the adjustment of specific arrangements, or new ways of curbing streetlevel discretion. Conversely, from a bottom-up perspective there will be questions about whether what is crucial is to devise new ways of making street-level decisions, or whether there are institutional and/or structural modifications that would need to be made before these would be feasible.
E. ) (2000) Governance and Performance; New Perspectives. : Georgetown University Press. J. L. Hupe (2002) Implementing Public Policy: Governance in Theory and Practice. London: Sage. J. L. Hupe (2003) ‘The multi-layer problem in implementation research’. Public Management Review, 5 (4): 469–488. W. and L. Gunn (1984) Policy Analysis for the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hoogerwerf, A. ) (1978) Overheidsbeleid: Een inleiding in de beleidswetenschap. Alphen aan den Rijn: Samsom. Howlett, M.
Third, the act of management is taken seriously; in principle it can be observed in all the loci of political-societal relations. Therefore levels of analysis have to be specified. Summarising, the stucture of a policy process can be seen as consisting of various elements: actors, sets of activities, action situations, and layers. Each concept will be elaborated here. qxd 22 6/8/2006 7:31 PM Page 22 HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC POLICY Actors Ostrom’s definitions of an actor (‘a single individual or a group functioning as a corporate actor’) and of action (‘those human behaviors to which the acting individual attaches a subjective and instrumental meaning’) cannot be improved (1999: 43).
Handbook of Public Policy by B. Guy Peters (ed.), Jon Pierre (ed.)